Pharmaceutical Prohormone Steroid Powder 4-Ad 4-Androstenedione CAS
white crystalline powder
+193°- +202 °
|Loss on drying|
Simplified hormone drugs, from the testis or urine extracted with
the role of a male hormone steroids, norethisterone, testosterone
propionate in the middle Body, is widely used in small rheumatoid
arthritis, diuretic, and a variety of contraceptive to control
4-Androstenedione is the common precursor of male and female sex
hormones. Some 4-Androstenedione is also secreted into the plasma,
and may be converted in peripheral tissues to testosterone and
4-Androstenedione can be synthesized in one of two ways. The
primary pathway involves conversion of 17-hydroxypregnenolone to
dehydroepiandrosterone by way of 17,20-lyase, with subsequent
conversion of dehydroepiandrosterone to 4-Androstenedione via the
enzyme 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. The secondary pathway
involves conversion of 17-hydroxyprogesterone, most often a
precursor to cortisol, to 4-androstenedione directly by way of
17,20-lyase. Thus,17,20-lyase is required for the synthesis of
4-androstenedione, whether immediately or one step removed.
The production of adrenal 4-Androstenedione is governed by ACTH,
whereas production of gonadal 4-Androstenedione is under control by
gonadotropins. In premenopausal women, the adrenal glands and
ovaries each produce about half of the total
4-androstenedione(about 3 mg/day). After menopause,
4-androstenedione production is about halved, due primarily to the
reduction of the steroid secreted by the ovary. Nevertheless,
4-androstenedione is the principal steroid produced by the
An 4-Androstenediones Level May Be Used To
Evaluate adrenal gland function and to distinguish between
androgen-secreting conditions that are caused by the adrenal glands
from those that originate in the ovaries or testicles, if results
of DHEAS and testosterone testing are abnormal.
Help diagnose tumors in the outer layer (cortex) of the adrenal
gland or tumors outside of the adrenal gland that secrete ACTH
(ectopic) and separate these conditions from ovarian or testicular
tumors and cancers.
Diagnose congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and monitor CAH
treatment, in addition to tests for testosterone and
17-hydroxyprogesterone, for example.
Help diagnose polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and help rule out
other causes of infertility, no monthly menstrual periods
(amenorrhea), and excess body and facial hair (hirsutism) in women
who have abnormal results on tests for DHEAS, testosterone, and
other hormones such as FSH, LH, prolactin, and estrogen.
Investigate and diagnose the cause of male physical characteristics
(virilization) in young girls and early (precocious) puberty in
Help determine the cause of delayed puberty and investigate
suspected ovarian or testicular failure.
How is 4-Androstenediones controlled?
Due to its secretion from a number of different glands and its
often rapid conversion to other hormones, the control of
4-Androstenediones within the body is very complex. However, two
key parts of the brain (the hypothalamus and pituitary gland) are
known to be important in the control of 4-Androstenediones
secretion from the testes, ovaries and adrenal cortex. The release
of 4-Androstenediones by the adrenal cortex is thought to be
related to the pituitary gland's secretion of a specialised
hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone. Precisely how
adrenocorticotropic hormone and other hormones control the adrenal
gland's production of 4-Androstenediones is, however, unclear. The
testes and ovaries are stimulated to release 4-Androstenediones by
luteinising hormone and follicle stimulating hormone. These are
released from the anterior pituitary gland in response to a hormone
signal from the hypothalamus.
What happens if I have too much 4-Androstenediones?
The effects of too much 4-Androstenediones are likely to result
from its conversion in the body to oestrogen or testosterone.
In men, too much 4-Androstenediones may lead to an imbalance in
oestrogen and testosterone production, leading to changes such as
breast development. Depending on the cause of the excess
4-Androstenediones, other changes, such as the testes becoming
smaller, might also occur.
In women, excess body and facial hair growth (called hirsutism),
stopping of periods (amenorrhoea), worsening acne and changes to
the genitalia may result from too much 4-Androstenediones.
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